Rugged Resilience Measure


What is the RRM?

The Rugged Resilience Measure is a 10-item self-report measure of internal or psychological resilience. It assesses capacities in essential skills and strengths that have been found to be protective against many forms of stress and adversity.

Uses for the RRM

The RRM is a general-use research scale that is suitable for assessing the resilience of individuals and groups in various contexts. It may be used in a variety of settings, such as in individual assessment, as part of a battery of measures in empirical research studies, evaluations, and clinical trials.

Development of the RRM

The RRM was developed when researchers at the Resilience Research Centre discovered there was no brief measure of resilience which reflected internal strengths. Although there are now many measures of resilience, none appeared to capture these ‘rugged’ qualities and provide a concise measure of internal or psychological resilience.

We therefore followed the steps of Boateng and colleagues’ (2018) best practices for scale development and validation to create a succinct measure of rugged resilience. The measure was tested with 7,000 individuals across seven countries and found to have good psychometric properties.


No special authorization is required to create a translation of the measure. However, if you are considering creating a translation, we encourage you to follow back-translation processes (read more in Richard W. Brislin’s article, “Back-Translation for Cross-Cultural Research” in the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (1970, Vol. 1, No. 3, pages 185-216).

If you create a translation, please send us a copy of the final measure as well as the back translation (into English). We can upload your translation and recommend users also cite your work when they use it.

Unlike our other measures (the CYRM/ARM and the BRAVE), we do not recommend substantial modifications to the RRM. You may wish to reword items or adjust the response scale for comprehension/literacy ability, but the addition or removal of items risks changing the underlying properties of the measure.